Before the birth of America and the movement of independent politics, there was another use for the term "independent." In England, during their first civil war, the Puritans had decent control of their Long Parliament, but they were split into two factions- the Independents and the Presbyterians. The split was caused by religious differences and differing opinions on the conduct of war. While they help some political beliefs they were not political parties but rather religious sects. They split politically on whether to pursue war or peace in the english civil war. The "war" Party, the presbyterians focused on confrontation ith the king of england and built a militia. The "Peace" party tried to focus on negotiations with england and cooperating with the scots.
Religious independents also called for freedom of religion and separation of church and state (sound familiar) but this caused further conflict with the presbyterians who wanted to bush a Christian nation. Independent churches and congregations were found in london and south england.
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